Selbstüberschätzung: Der Dunning-Kruger-Effekt zeigt, wieso Menschen mit wenig Fachwissen sich selbst häufig über- und andere. Der Dunning-Kruger-Effekt ist ein populärwissenschaftlicher Begriff, der die maßlose Selbstüberschätzung inkompetenter Menschen beschreibt. Dunning-Kruger-Effekt bezeichnet die kognitive Verzerrung im Selbstverständnis inkompetenter Menschen, das eigene Wissen und Können zu überschätzen.
Die gefährliche Mischung aus Halbwissen und SelbstüberschätzungDer Dunning-Kruger-Effekt ist ein populärwissenschaftlicher Begriff, der die maßlose Selbstüberschätzung inkompetenter Menschen beschreibt. Dunning-Kruger-Effekt. Unter dem Begriff versteht man eine kognitive Verzerrung der eigenen Wahrnehmung, in dem man das eigene Können, Wissen und die. Dunning-Kruger-Effekt bezeichnet die kognitive Verzerrung im Selbstverständnis inkompetenter Menschen, das eigene Wissen und Können zu überschätzen.
Dunning Kruger Effekt What is the Dunning-Kruger Effect? VideoWarum \
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The Dunning—Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people with low ability at a task overestimate their ability. It is related to the cognitive bias of illusory superiority and comes from people's inability to recognize their lack of ability.
Without the self-awareness of metacognition , people cannot objectively evaluate their level of competence. As described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger , the bias results from an internal illusion in people of low ability and from an external misperception in people of high ability; that is, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others".
But in spite of the inherent appeal of Dunning and Kruger's claimed results, which align with many people's just world theories ,  their conclusions are strongly challenged when subjected to mathematical analysis    and comparisons across cultures.
The psychological phenomenon of illusory superiority was identified as a form of cognitive bias in Kruger and Dunning's study "Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments".
This belief was based on his misunderstanding of the chemical properties of lemon juice as an invisible ink.
Other investigations of the phenomenon, such as "Why People Fail to Recognize Their Own Incompetence",  indicate that much incorrect self-assessment of competence derives from the person's ignorance of a given activity's standards of performance.
Dunning and Kruger's research also indicates that training in a task, such as solving a logic puzzle, increases people's ability to accurately evaluate how good they are at it.
In Self-insight: Roadblocks and Detours on the Path to Knowing Thyself ,  Dunning described the Dunning—Kruger effect as "the anosognosia of everyday life", referring to a neurological condition in which a disabled person either denies or seems unaware of his or her disability.
He stated: "If you're incompetent, you can't know you're incompetent The skills you need to produce a right answer are exactly the skills you need to recognize what a right answer is.
In , Dunning wrote about his observations that people with substantial, measurable deficits in their knowledge or expertise lack the ability to recognize those deficits and, therefore, despite potentially making error after error, tend to think they are performing competently when they are not: "In short, those who are incompetent, for lack of a better term, should have little insight into their incompetence—an assertion that has come to be known as the Dunning—Kruger effect".
Dunning and Kruger tested the hypotheses of the cognitive bias of illusory superiority on undergraduate students of introductory courses in psychology by examining the students' self-assessments of their intellectual skills in inductive , deductive , and abductive logical reasoning , English grammar, and personal sense of humor.
After learning their self-assessment scores, the students were asked to estimate their ranks in the psychology class. The competent students underestimated their class rank, and the incompetent students overestimated theirs, but the incompetent students did not estimate their class rank as higher than the ranks estimated by the competent group.
Across four studies, the research indicated that the study participants who scored in the bottom quartile on tests of their sense of humor, knowledge of grammar, and logical reasoning, overestimated their test performance and their abilities; despite test scores that placed them in the 12th percentile, the participants estimated they ranked in the 62nd percentile.
Moreover, competent students tended to underestimate their own competence, because they erroneously presumed that tasks easy for them to perform were also easy for other people to perform.
Incompetent students improved their ability to estimate their class rank correctly after receiving minimal tutoring in the skills they previously lacked, regardless of any objective improvement gained in said skills of perception.
The study "How Chronic Self-Views Influence and Potentially Mislead Estimates of Performance"  indicated a shift in the participants' view of themselves when influenced by external cues.
The participants' knowledge of geography was tested; some tests were intended to affect the participants' self-view positively, and some were intended to affect it negatively.
The participants then were asked to rate their performances; the participants given tests with a positive intent reported better performance than did the participants given tests with a negative intent.
To test Dunning and Kruger's hypotheses "that people, at all performance levels, are equally poor at estimating their relative performance", the study "Skilled or Unskilled, but Still Unaware of It: How Perceptions of Difficulty Drive Miscalibration in Relative Comparisons"  investigated three studies that manipulated the "perceived difficulty of the tasks, and, hence, [the] participants' beliefs about their relative standing".
The investigation indicated that when the experimental subjects were presented with moderately difficult tasks, there was little variation among the best performers and the worst performers in their ability to predict their performance accurately.
With more difficult tasks, the best performers were less accurate in predicting their performance than were the worst performers.
Therefore, judges at all levels of skill are subject to similar degrees of error in the performance of tasks.
In testing alternative explanations for the cognitive bias of illusory superiority, the study "Why the Unskilled are Unaware: Further Explorations of Absent Self-insight Among the Incompetent"  reached the same conclusions as previous studies of the Dunning—Kruger effect: that, in contrast to high performers, "poor performers do not learn from feedback suggesting a need to improve".
One recent study  suggests that individuals of relatively high social class are more overconfident than lower-class individuals.
The Dunning—Kruger effect is a statement about a particular disposition of human behavior, but it also makes quantitative assertions that rest on mathematical arguments.
However, the authors' findings are often misinterpreted, misrepresented, and misunderstood. According to author Tal Yarkoni:.
What they did show is [that] people in the top quartile for actual performance think they perform better than the people in the second quartile, who in turn think they perform better than the people in the third quartile, and so on.
Mathematically, the effect relies on the quantifying of paired measures consisting of a the measure of the competence people can demonstrate when put to the test actual competence and b the measure of competence people believe that they have self-assessed competence.
Researchers express the measures either as percentages or as percentile scores scaled from 0 to 1 or from 0 to By convention, researchers express the differences between the two measures as self-assessed competence minus actual competence.
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What this means is that self-assessment fails in the uninformed, while experts fail in the assessment of others.
The uninformed and unskilled err in assessing their own abilities, while experts tend to misjudge others, thinking that these others have more knowledge and skill than they do.
There are a few other results of this effect. For one, not only do unskilled and uninformed individuals overestimate their abilities, they are also unable to see the depth of their own inadequacy.
Furthermore, they will tend to be unable to recognize knowledge and ability in others. Once these individuals receive further training and improve their skills, their self-assessment capacities improve as well.
They are then able to recognize their previous errors and lack of skill. As with many psychological effects, the Dunning-Kruger effect was brought to the attention of the public by a highly publicized criminal case.
In this instance, it was the case of a bank robber named McArthur Wheeler. Wheeler had learned about the use of lemon juice as an invisible ink.
He took this knowledge one step further, believing that he would be invisible to video cameras if he covered his face with lemon juice.
So this is exactly what he did. In , Wheeler robbed two savings banks in Pittsburg with his face covered with lemon juice.
He was arrested later the same day due to a tip received by the police from someone who had seen his face. Wheeler was dumbstruck when the police showed him the footage from the banks.
This is a pretty profound example of the Dunning-Kruger effect, as it would have to be to catch the attention of social psychologists sufficiently to name a cognitive bias after it.
However, there are many examples of this effect in daily life. We often encounter individuals who have a generous impression of their own skills when in fact they are average at best.
But what does this have to do with avoiding the potentially damaging implications of the Dunning-Kruger effect? Well, if our perceived ability of a subject is brought inline with our actual ability through increased knowledge, then one strategy would seem to be deepening our understanding.
Rather than assuming you know all there is to know about a topic, explore it further. As you have a better grasp on a subject, you will probably realize there is still much to learn.
Another strategy is to ask other people to evaluate your performance. Remember, we often struggle to consider ourselves from an outside.
Anchoring bias is a cognitive bias that causes us to rely too heavily on the first piece of information we What is the Framing Effect? The framing effect is when our decisions are influenced by the way information is presented Where this bias occurs Black Down Chevron Icon Where this bias occurs Individual effects Systemic effects Why it happens Why it is important How to avoid it.
What is the Dunning-Kruger Effect? Where this bias occurs The Decision Lab The Decision Lab is a think tank focused on creating positive impact in the public and private sectors by applying behavioral science.
We are on a mission to democratize behavioral science. The Decision Lab The Decision Lab is a think tank focused on creating positive impact in the public and private sectors by applying behavioral science.
Related Biases Anchoring Bias Bandwagon Effect Category Size Bias Cognitive Dissonance Optimism Bias Planning Fallacy.
Individual effects The Dunning-Kruger effect can lead us to make poor decisions in our personal and professional lives. Systemic effects Decisions that are motivated by the Dunning-Kruger effect can multiply to create systemic problems.
Why it happens As said earlier, the Dunning-Kruger effect arises from a gap between perceived and actual competence. The two-pronged problem When we lack expertise and skill in an area, we often perform poorly as a result.
We like to feel good about ourselves Another reason why we sometimes experience the Dunning-Kruger effect is that it protects our self-esteem. Why it is important That being said, we should be aware of the Dunning-Kruger effect because of the negative influence it can have over our decision-making.
How to avoid it Dunning and Kruger suggest that the overestimation of our competence is greatest when we have a narrow understanding of a topic.
Sources Hide Icon angle down primary color. Samson, A. The Behavioral Economics Guide Behavioral Science Solutions.